Richmond A. Owusu, Michael R. Abern, and Brant A. Inman
Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 2812, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Correspondence should be addressed to Brant A. Inman; email@example.com Received 17 May 2013; Accepted 1 August 2013
Academic Editor: Shyh-Dar Li
Copyright © 2013 Richmond A. Owusu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer remains a very costly cancer to manage because of high recurrence rates requiring long- term surveillance and treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that adjunct and concurrent use of hyperthermia with intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor further reduces recurrence risk and progression to advanced disease. Hyperthermia has both direct and immune-mediated cytotoxic effect on tumor cells including tumor growth arrest and activation of antitumor immune system cells and pathways. Concurrent heat application also acts as a sensitizer to intravesical chemotherapy agents. As such the ability to deliver hyperthermia to the focus of tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding benign tissue is of utmost importance to optimize the benefit of hyperthermia treatment. Existing chemohyperthermia devices that allow for more localized heat delivery continue to pave the way in this effort. Current investigational methods involving heat- activated drug delivery selectively to tumor cells using temperature-sensitive liposomes also offer promising ways to improve chemohyperthermia efficacy in bladder cancer while minimizing toxicity to benign tissue. This will hopefully allow more widespread use of chemohyperthermia to all bladder cancer patients, including metastatic bladder cancer.